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Advanced Module

Program Edition LEX2012

ADVANCED MODULE - 12h-15th September

Date Teacher Title and Content description
12th Sept. Chairman: Sartor Title: Structure, Naming, Processes in the legal domain – Advanced Module
9.00-10.00 Schefbeck Title: Legislative traditions and drafting guidelines: pre-requirement of the legislative document management

Abstract: The legislative drafting process comprises several distinct steps: It is based on the requirement of analyzing (and “understanding”) the respective political instructions, and it includes designing, composing, editing, and scrutinizing legislative documents. This regularly is to be done within a framework of legislative drafting rules, which in different normative systems may belong to different kinds of regulations, ranging from mere recommendations to binding legal rules.

The lecture will stimulate reflection on different legislative traditions and legislative drafting rules, but it will focus on a specific set of drafting guidelines developed within the Akoma Ntoso project and based upon the Akoma Ntoso standard. This set of legislative drafting guidelines takes into account the experiences of different normative systems belonging to the Continental as well as Anglo-Saxon traditions.

Finally, some practical advice and examples will be given. They will cover the different issues of style and usage in writing laws, as well as the “architecture” or systematic organization of legal regulations. Based on the experiences presented, four basic principles for legislative drafting may be developed:

economy, clearness, system and formalism.

Lecture Session

10.00-10.45 Sartor Title: Legislative drafting guidelines

Abstract: Introduction to the Akoma Ntoso Legislative drafting guidelines.

Lecture Session

10.45-11.15 Coffee Break
11.15-12.00 Vitali Title: Structuring legislative documents with XML standards

Abstract: We will consider how modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are instrumental to the best access of citizens to legislation. Only through standards for data, processes and identification of legislation document we can exploit the advantages of ICT. For this reason we will introduce discuss standards and standardization activities with particular attention to legislative and parliamentary documents

Lecture Session

12.00-13.00 Schefbeck/
Title: Naming of referencing and modifications: theoretical models, legislative traditions and drafting requirements

Abstract: This session addresses naming and normative referencing in theory and practices with a comparative approach. We also consider the specific problem related to the modificatory provisions, which create often complexity and affect the legal certainty. We argue that certain aspects of the legal language can be standardised and simplified, and that can favour computer elaboration using the semantic web technologies.

The students will acquire the capacity to understand the existing approaches to legal drafting techniques and the concrete examples specified in the Legal Common Guidelines and in the Austrian Code with particular regard to normative referencing, modifications, naming of the parts.

Lecture Session

13,00-14.15 Lunch
14.30-15.30 Vitali Title: Structural markup and legal metadata

Abstract: The purpose of this section is to prove some basic methodological insights into the design of the legal document-models: what to look for when designing a vocabulary for XML documents, what regularities to exploit, what metadata to introduce, how to deal with metadata in a mixed XML and RDF/OWL environment.

Lecture Session

15.30-16.00 Coffee Break
16,00-17,00 Palmirani Title: Modelling the legislative lifecycle

Abstract: Legal resources are no longer isolated document and they result from a complex lifecycle including versioning, variant and derived sub-products. More and more the attention of the legislative informatics is moving from the eLegislation model to a new eParliament approach. In the latter approach all lifecycle events are modelled in digital way and proper metadata are capture in any phase of the legislative process and beyond in the publishing sector.

The lecture presents the metadata for modelling the lifecycle, the methodologies of consolidation/versioning, the metadata for tracking all the workflow inside of the legislative process.

Lecture Session

17,00-18,00 Palmirani/Cervone/
Practical Section

How to mark up the lifecycle in Akoma Ntoso



Via Corrado Ricci 24, Ravenna

Tel. +39.0544.30163

Fax +39.0544.30163

Date Teacher Title and Content description
13th Sept. Chairman: Palmirani Semantic Web in Legal document

9.00- 10.45 Tommaso Agnoloni, Ittig-CNR


Montemagni, ILC-CNR

Title: Linguistic and Legal Ontology

Abstract: This session will present an overview of current research on lexical (also called linguistic or lightweight) ontologies. Compared to traditional linguistic resources, such as thesauri, classification schemas, etc., which are usually search-oriented, the structure of linguistic ontologies is based on lexical semantic, which guarantees a ‘neutral’ approach and, as a consequence is more effective in terms of interoperability, sharing, integration and reuse. Lexical ontologies can also provide simple but consistent solutions to the construction of multilingual lexicons. It is widely recognized that, while it is increasing the need of semantic tools for searching legal information in multi-national environments, a consistent methodology for building multilingual thesauri for legal domain doesn’t exist.

The session introduces and clarifies methodological implications both from a theoretical and empirical point of view. From the theoretical side, some fundamental questions related to the definition of a domain specific methodology will be addressed, while practical solutions will be explained trough the illustration of concrete projects. The methodology set up for the realization of multilingual lexicon structured along the lines of consolidated models (WordNet, Framenet) will be explained; terms extraction techniques applied in the projects will be shortly introduced and applicative results will be outlined; the course will also discuss operational issues related to the definition of collaborative platforms for incremental and distributed process of ontology construction.

Lecture Session

10.45 -11.15 Coffee Break
11.15-12.15 Tommaso Agnoloni, Ittig-CNR


Montemagni, ILC-CNR

Title: Legal ontologies: types, methodologies and applications

Abstract: The session provides an overview of current design practices

and tools for the development of legal ontologies. As an example, legal

ontology applications will be displayed and an ontology editor will be

used to introduce sample practices.

Lecture Session

13.00-14.15 Lunch
14.30-15.30 Palmirani Title: Metadata in the modelling of parliamentary acts and judgments

The parliamentary acts like hansards, report, minutes needs a lot of metadata for connecting the legislative documents each other and also for grasping legal knowledge information useful for implementing transparency, assessment, monitoring and liability.

The judgment document, or case-law, has a flexible and usually unstructured architecture. Nevertheless the metadata are really relevant in quantity and in quality.

This lecture aims to present these metadata and to provide the Akoma Ntoso framework for the markup.

15.30-16.00 Coffee Break
16.00-18.00 Palmirani-Cervone-Ferrari-Ceci Practical Section

Practical: Tagging parliamentary documents

Practical: Tagging judgments


Teacher Title and Content description
14th Sept. Tom Van Engers Legal Knowledge Management
9.00-10.45 Tom Van Engers Title: Introduction to Legal Knowledge Management

Abstract: Legal Knowledge Management is focused on strategic issues that might require improving accessible (legal) sources of knowledge but is not limited to that since the sources are represented and argued about. In this lecture an overview of strategic knowledge management issues is presented and illustrated with current developments.

Lecture Session

Tom Van Engers Title: Knowledge representation

LKIF-core: legal ontology and legal reasoning

Abstract: This lecture presents invariant elements in any legal system. These elements are described in a core ontology called Legal Knowledge Interchange Format Core ontology (LKIF-core)

Lecture Session

10.45-11.15 Coffee Break
11.15-12.00 Adam Wyner
Title: Natural Language Techniques for Legal Knowledge Management

Abstract: A text with legal content expressed in natural language can, to a large extent, be automatically annotated with semantic mark-ups using natural language processing systems such as the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE).  The lecture gives an overview of GATE, some examples of extraction from legal cases and legislation, and an indication of future research trends.

Lecture Session

12.00-13.00 Tom Van Engers and Adam Wyner Title: Computational Models of Legal Arguments

Abstract: This lecture presents the basic motivation for modelling argumentation is given. Examples from a practical case are used to demonstrate the current state of the art and the open issues.

Lecture Session

13.00 -14.15 Lunch
14.30-15.30 Tom Van Engers and Adam Wyner
Title: The structure of argumentative legal texts

Abstract: Many legal texts are argumentative, such as the case files exchanged by the parties in a case, the court’s decision in a case, scholarly publications and discussions and opinions in legal blogs. In this part of the course  an introduction is given to the argumentative structure of such texts. The following topics will be discussed:

·         the structure of argument;
·         argument and counterargument;
·         legal argumentation schemes.
There will be some examples of how to use GATE to support the identification and extraction of argument elements.

15.30-16.00 Coffee Break
16.00-18.00 Adam Wyner Practical Session

Abstract: In lab exercises to draw argument graphs using Araucaria and to extract information from legal cases, legislation and arguments using GATE.

18.00-19.00 Test
20.00 Social Dinner on the beach – unofficial dinner not included in the fee

15th Sept.


Invited speakers: Success Cases of XML-ization in legislative domain

  • XML-ization projects into European Parliament, Fabiani Claudio, EU Parliament
  • California State Success Case, Gran Vergottini, Xcential, US
  • LexML Brazil, João Alberto de Oliveira Lima, Senate of Brazil
  • Parliament XML-ization of the Debates, Nora Strassberg and Maria Isabel Gimenez Diaz, Chamber of Deputies of Argentina
  • Austrian Parliament XML Success Case, Schefbeck Günther, Austrian Parliament
  • Switzerland COP Project, Albano Bernasconi, Federal Chancellery, Centre for Official Publications COP

13,15-14,15 Lunch
  • Presentation of the student success cases
  • Diploma Ceremony
Tour in Ravenna City

16.30-18.30 Guided tour in the Ravenna City